Segui le ultime notizie e i progetti sulla Covid e la risposta della Commissione europea al coronavirus. Phosphorus is one essential element of life, which can neither be produced synthetically nor substituted by any other substance. Its importance as plant nutrient is emphasized by the huge amount of tons of phosphorus annually imported into Europe to sustain good harvests. Technology concepts have been developed in recent European projects to tap into this local resource. While the traditional application of sewage sludge in agriculture is increasingly refused by stakeholders, this path has to be further secured to protect the environment and human health. In addition, technological alternatives to recycle phosphorus are available and need yet to be deployed on to the market. The P-REX project builds on the outputs of previous European research projects and will perform the first holistic full-scale evaluation of technical phosphorus recovery techniques using municipal sludge or ashes in comparison with phosphorus recycling by land application of sewage sludge.
London matchgirls 1888
Phossy jaw , formally known as phosphorus necrosis of the jaw , was an occupational disease affecting those who worked with white phosphorus also known as yellow phosphorus without proper safeguards. It was most commonly seen in workers in the matchstick industry in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Modern occupational hygiene practices have since eliminated the working conditions that caused this disease. Those with phossy jaw would usually begin suffering painful toothaches and swelling of the gums.
The pain was characterized as “persistent yet progressive Treatments included topical antimicrobials, conservative debridement of sequestra and surgery.
White phosphorus also proved to be highly toxic. Workers in match plants who inhaled white phosphorus fumes often suffered from a horrible degeneration of the.
Until the mids, lighting a fire was a painstaking and frustrating process. Tinder—shredded wood pulp, dried grass or wool—had to be ignited with sparks created by striking a coarse stone against steel then stoked with oxygen into a small flame until hot enough to light firewood. Matches were an improvement but often dangerous, because they were made with highly combustible yellow phosphorus.
The safety match was invented by a Swedish professor in and is still in use today. You can make your own strike-anywhere matches, but exercise the utmost caution: the chemicals used to make them are extremely hazardous. Cut your dowel rods into matchsticks by nicking with a small knife and snapping into 2- to 3-inch lengths. Mix a small amount of potassium chlorate with white glue in a Pyrex or Kimex beaker to create a thick paste.
The ratio is not important, so long as the mixture does not drip. Set the matches on an old pan, keeping the paste-covered tip off the pan’s surface by resting each match against a length of dowel. Make a paste of white glue and red phosphorus in a new Pyrex or Kimex beaker, and stir gently. Do NOT use the beaker in which you mixed the potassium chlorate paste; the two chemicals are explosively reactive and, if combined, can blind, disfigure or even kill you.
Bake the matches for another two hours.
‘The Devil’s element’: the dark side of phosphorus
Phosphorus is essential to every living cell. The organic phosphatic compound deoxyribonucleic acid DNA provides the genetic code for life, and adenosine triphosphate ATP is essential for cellular energy conversion. In agriculture, phosphorus, along with nitrogen and potassium, is one of three major plant nutrients. Most phosphorus is used to make phosphoric acid of high purity necessary for some food processing and for etching semi-conductors.
It is known as thermal phosphoric acid and is made by burning phosphorus in moist air.
development of matches. safety match. In match von Schrötter in of red phosphorus, which is nontoxic and is not.
There are two types of matches: ones that are considered safe, and ones that can be ignited using any surface. The only difference is that in safety matches, the chemicals required to ignite them are kept separate from each other. But before we understand how they work, we must first ask — how did they come into being? Safety matches have come a long way from their antecedent, the Lucifer match. According to an article in the Pacific Rural Press , the invention of the match is credited to Sir Isaac Holden, who capitalised on the need for instant fire at your fingertips.
They were sold in metal tins, and came with a piece of sandpaper to light against. But there was one ingredient that made a vital difference: white phosphorus. In the early nineteenth-century, however, Lucifer matches heavily relied on white phosphorus as one of the main ingredients in the match head.
Phosphorus Poisoning in the Match Industry in the United States
The London match-girls strike of was a strike of the women and teenage girls working at the Bryant and May Factory in Bow, London. The strike was sparked by the poor working conditions in the match factory, including fourteen-hour work days, poor pay, excessive fines, and the severe health complications of working with yellow or white phosphorus, such as phossy jaw.
Three weeks later, the factory owners agreed to rehire the strikers and end the fine system. In , the Salvation Army opened up its own match factory in the Bow district of London, using less toxic red phosphorus and paying better wages. Part of the reason behind this match factory was the desire to improve the conditions of home workers, including children, who dipped yellow phosphorus-based matches at home.
Most phosphorus is used to make phosphoric acid of high purity necessary Small amounts of phosphorus sesquisulfide, P4S3, are used in the match industry.
Unintentionally swallowing a few match tips is not dangerous but would be expected to cause some minor irritation to the mouth and stomach. Swallowing a large number of matches can cause serious effects including damage to red blood cells and organs such as the kidneys and liver. Matches are made from small sticks of wood or cardboard coated on one tip with ignitable materials.
The striking surface of safety match boxes contains red phosphorus and an abrasive substance. When struck Added to some matches to make them burn more.
One of the most noteworthy of these was the location of “black” phosphorus. For many years the Red and White members of the phosphorus family have been well known. A new member has now joined the group–Black, according to Professor P. Bridgman ’04, Professor of Physics in the University. Phosphorus means “light- bearer” and most of us have seen the glow which the old-fashioned “all-day choker” matches gave out when scratched in the dark. This pale glow is due to white phosphorus used in making the head of the match so that it will strike easily and anywhere–from the thumb nail to the trouser leg.
How to Make a Homemade Match
The infamous “phossy jaw” that created an epidemic of exposed bone osteonecrosis exclusively in the jaws began around and continued until , with only a few cases appearing since that time. In match-making factories, workers called “mixers,” “dippers,” and “boxers” were exposed to heated fumes containing this compound. Related to the duration of exposure, many of these workers developed painful exposed bone in the mouth, whereas their office-based counterparts did not.
Throughout the nineteenth century the British match-making industry used white phosphorus in the production of lucifer matches, despite the knowledge taht the.
Pea sized portions of potassium chlorate and red phosphorus are reacted together by striking with a hammer. Smoke, a loud bang and a flash are observed. Lab coat and goggles are recommended. The phosphorus sulfide is easily ignited, the potassium chlorate decomposes to give oxygen, which in turn causes the phosphorus sulfide to burn more vigorously. The head of safety matches are made of an oxidizing agent such as potassium chlorate, mixed with sulfur, fillers and glass powder.
The side of the box contains red phosphorus, binder and powdered glass.
Friction Matches Were a Boon to Those Lighting Fires–Not So Much to Matchmakers
Matches, as it turns out, have been around for a long time. Sulfur-based matches are mentioned as far back as the s in texts of the time, and in the s a process involving drawing sulfur matches through dried phosphorus-soaked paper was devised. These matches were somewhat unreliable in whether or not they would successfully strike, however. Whilst much easier to ignite, these matches, too, had issues.
Women working in a match factory in London in by women and children actually made them glow in the dark: matchstick making. as gross as it sounds—necrosis of the jaw bone caused by phosphorus poisoning.
A match is a small stick of wood or strip of cardboard with a solidified mixture of flammable chemicals deposited on one end. When that end is struck on a rough surface, the friction generates enough heat to ignite the chemicals and produce a small flame. Some matches, called strike-anywhere matches, may be ignited by striking them on any rough surface.
Other matches, called safety matches, will ignite only when they are struck on a special rough surface containing certain chemicals. The first known use of matches was in during the siege of a town in northern China. Women in the town used sticks coated with a mixture of chemicals to start fires for cooking and heating, thus allowing them to conserve their limited fuel by putting the fires out between uses.
The details of this technique were subsequently lost to history.
How a Glendale match company went up in smoke following fire: Our Neighborhood, The Way it Was
There’s a lot of interesting chemistry going on in the small head of a safety match. Safety matches are ‘safe’ because they don’t undergo spontaneous combustion and because they don’t make people sick. You have to strike a safety match against a special surface in order to get it to ignite.
phosphorus, the match industry had to learn how it should be purified. introduced into the production, every factory had to make their own test batches of safety.
A match is a tool for starting a fire. Typically, matches are made of small wooden sticks or stiff paper. One end is coated with a material that can be ignited by frictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface. The coated end of a match, known as the match “head”, consists of a bead of active ingredients and binder ; often colored for easier inspection.
There are two main types of matches: safety matches, which can be struck only against a specially prepared surface, and strike-anywhere matches, for which any suitably frictional surface can be used. Historically, the term match referred to lengths of cord later cambric impregnated with chemicals, and allowed to burn continuously. The modern equivalent of this sort of match is the simple fuse , still used in pyrotechnics to obtain a controlled time delay before ignition.